CrowdSec has two main parts; detection and interdiction.
Detection is handled by the main CrowdSec binary. You tell it what files to keep an eye on, how to parse those files, and what something ‘bad’ looks like. It then keeps a list of IPs that have done bad things.
Interdiction is handled by any number of plugins called ‘bouncers’, so named because they block access or kick out bad IPs. They run independently and keep an eye on the list, to do things like edit the firewall to block access for a bad IP.
There is also the ‘crowd’ part. The CrowdSec binary downloads IPs of known bad-actors from the cloud for your bouncers to keep out and submits alerts from your systems.
With Debian, you can simply add the repo via their script and install with a couple lines.
curl -s https://packagecloud.io/install/repositories/crowdsec/crowdsec/script.deb.sh | sudo bash sudo apt install crowdsec sudo apt install crowdsec-firewall-bouncer-nftables
This installs both the detection (crowdsec) and the interdiction (crowdsec-firewall-bouncer) parts. Assuming eveything went well, crowdsec will check in with the cloud, download a baseline list of known bad-actors, the firewall-bouncer will set up a basic drop list in the firewall, and crowdsec will start watching your syslog for intrusion attempts.
# Check out the very long drop list sudo nft list ruleset | less
CrowdSec comes pre-configured to watch for ssh brute-force attacks. If you have specific services to watch you can add those as described below.
Add a Service
You probably want to watch a specific service, like web server. Take a look at [https://hub.crowdsec.net/] to see all the available components. For example, browse the collections and search for caddy. The more info link will show you how to install the collection;
sudo cscli collections list -a sudo cscli collections install crowdsecurity/caddy
Tell CrowdSec where Caddy’s log files are.
sudo tee -a /etc/crowdsec/acquis.yaml << EOF --- filenames: - /var/log/caddy/*.log labels: type: caddy --- EOF
Restart crowdsec for these changes to take effect
sudo systemctl reload crowdsec
CrowdSec works by pulling in data from the Acquisition files, Parsing the events, comparing to Scenarios, and then Deciding if action should be taken.
Acquisition of data from log files is based on entries in the
acquis.yaml file, and the events given a label as defined in that file.
Those events feed the Parsers. There are a handful by default, but only the ones specifically interested in a given label will see it. They look for keywords like ‘FAILED LOGIN’ and then extract the IP.
Successfully parsed lines are feed to the Scenarios to if what happened matters. The scenarios look for things like 10 FAILED LOGINs in 1 min. This separates the accidental bad password entry from a brute force attempt.
Matching a scenario gets the IP added to the Decision List, i.e the list of bad IPs. These have a configurable expiration, so that if you really guess wrong 10 times in a row, you’re not banned forever.
The bouncers use this list to take action, like a firewall block, and will unblock you after the expiration.
Parsers and Scenarios work best when they work together so they are usually distributed together as a Collection. You can have collections of collections as well. For example, the base installation comes with the linux collection that includes a few parsers and the sshd collection.
To see what Collections, Parsers and Scenarios are running, use the
cscli command line interface.
sudo cscli collections list sudo cscli collections inspect crowdsecurity/linux sudo cscli collections inspect crowdsecurity/sshd
Inspecting the collection will tell you what parsers and scenarios it contains. As well as some metrics. To learn more a collection and it’s components, you can check out their page:
The metrics are a bit confusing until you learn that the ‘Unparsed’ column doesn’t mean unparsed so much as it means a non-event. These are just normal logfile lines that don’t have one of the keywords the parser was looking for, like ‘LOGIN FAIL’.
Is anyone currently attacking you? The decisions list shows you any current bad actors and the alerts list shows you a summary of past decisions. If you are just getting started this is probably none, but if you’re open to the internet this will grow quickly.
sudo cscli decisions list sudo cscli alerts list
But you are getting events from the cloud and you can check those with the
-a option. You’ll notice that every 2 hours the community-blocklist is updated.
sudo cscli alerts list -a
After a while of this collection running, you’ll start to see these kinds of alerts
sudo cscli alerts list ╭────┬───────────────────┬───────────────────────────────────────────┬─────────┬────────────────────────┬───────────┬─────────────────────────────────────────╮ │ ID │ value │ reason │ country │ as │ decisions │ created_at │ ├────┼───────────────────┼───────────────────────────────────────────┼─────────┼────────────────────────┼───────────┼─────────────────────────────────────────┤ │ 27 │ Ip:18.104.22.168 │ crowdsecurity/http-bad-user-agent │ US │ 16509 AMAZON-02 │ ban:1 │ 2023-03-02 13:12:27.948429492 +0000 UTC │ │ 26 │ Ip:22.214.171.124 │ crowdsecurity/http-path-traversal-probing │ US │ 16509 AMAZON-02 │ ban:1 │ 2023-03-02 13:12:27.979479713 +0000 UTC │ │ 25 │ Ip:126.96.36.199 │ crowdsecurity/http-probing │ US │ 16509 AMAZON-02 │ ban:1 │ 2023-03-02 13:12:27.9460075 +0000 UTC │ │ 24 │ Ip:188.8.131.52 │ crowdsecurity/http-sensitive-files │ US │ 16509 AMAZON-02 │ ban:1 │ 2023-03-02 13:12:27.945759433 +0000 UTC │ │ 16 │ Ip:184.108.40.206 │ crowdsecurity/http-probing │ SG │ 14061 DIGITALOCEAN-ASN │ ban:1 │ 2023-03-01 23:03:06.818512212 +0000 UTC │ │ 15 │ Ip:220.127.116.11 │ crowdsecurity/http-sensitive-files │ SG │ 14061 DIGITALOCEAN-ASN │ ban:1 │ 2023-03-01 23:03:05.814690037 +0000 UTC │ ╰────┴───────────────────┴───────────────────────────────────────────┴─────────┴────────────────────────┴───────────┴─────────────────────────────────────────╯
You may even need to unblock yourself
sudo cscli decisions list sudo cscli decision delete --id XXXXXXX
You’re now taking advantage of the crowd-part of the crowdsec and added your own service. If you don’t have any alerts though, you may be wondering how well it’s actually working.
Take a look at the detailed activity if you want to look more closely at what’s going on.
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